Orton-Gillingham (O-G) is a structured, sequential, and multisensory approach to teaching reading (decoding) and spelling (encoding) to individuals. All learning modalities are engaged during a lesson (auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic). Since O-G is diagnostic-prescriptive in nature, the teacher designs individualized lessons that include specific strategies that enable each learner to be successful. As students are directly and explicitly taught new skills, they continue to review previously taught materials to a level of automaticity. This cumulative approach to learning allows a student to experience a high degree of success thus gaining in confidence as well as in skill.
At a more advanced level of Orton-Gillingham, students work with Latin roots and affixes, Greek combining forms, accent patterns, and then apply this information to reading, writing, spelling, and vocabulary development.
As children develop their decoding skills, they continue to need additional instruction and practice in order to become fluent readers. Fluency is the rapid, prosodic flow with which skilled readers read. When a fluent reader reads aloud, his or her reading is fluid and accurate, with adequate speed, appropriate phrasing, and correct intonation.
Fluency develops gradually over considerable time and through substantial practice. Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
Success at fluency requires the reader to connect the flow of printed text to the flow of spoken language attaining the ultimate goal of reading to acquire vocabulary and to comprehend.